Step One: Identify High Risk Group

Consultation and Evaluation

The first step of Myopia Management System™ is to collect important information for evaluation:

  • Degree of Myopia of the child

  • Family history: whether the parents are myopic
    -Both parents are myopic, one of the parents are myopic or both parents are not myopic

  • Daily habits
    -Amount of time spent on outdoor activities

Who are at high risk?

Risk factor: Family History2, 3, 4, 5

Compared to having no myopic parents:

  • Having child with 2 myopic parents: 5.1X more likely to be myopic

  • Having child with 1 myopic parent: 2.1X more likely to be myopic

Risk factor: Inadequate Outdoor Activities9

  • A large scale in Sydney Myopia study 2003-2005 to investigate myopia prevalence in relation to near work and outdoor activity.

  • 7 year olds (n=1756) and 12 year olds (n=2367).

  • Lowest risk for myopia was found in children with highest levels of outdoor activity.

  • Children with low outdoor activity and high near work hours per week had 2.6x the risk of myopia than high outdoor/low near work children.

  • Low outdoor/low near work groups had a higher risk for myopia than high outdoor/high near work group.

Combination of two risk factors2

  • Highest Risk: 2 myopic parents + little outdoor activities
    - 60% chance of having myopia if < 5 hrs/wk of sports or outdoor activities
    - 20% chance of having myopia if ≥ 14 hrs/wk of sports or outdoor activities

  • Lowest Risk: no myopic parents + lots outdoor activities
    - Outdoor activity did not equate to less near work

Increased time outdoors decreases the chance of having myopia2

  1. Jones LA, Sinnott LT et al. Parental history of myopia, sports and outdoor activities, and future myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007 Aug;48(8):3524-32.

  2. Ip JM, Huynh SC et al. Ethnic differences in the impact of parental myopia: Findings from a population-based study of 12-year-old Australian children. Invest Ophthalmolo Vis Sci 2007 Jun;48(6):2520-28.

  3. Young TL, Metlapally R, Shay AE. Complex trait genetics of refractive error. Arch Ophthalmol 2007 Jan;125(1):38-48.

  4. Tang WC, Yap MK, Yip SP. A review of current approaches to identifying human genes involved in myopia. Clin Exp Optom 2008 Jan;91(1):4-22.

  5. Rose KA, Morgan IG et al. Outdoor activity reduces the prevalence of myopia in children. Ophthalmology 2008 Aug;115(8):1279-85.